What is Elixir?

What is Elixir: Exploring its Functional Programming Essence

In our latest post, we’ll be exploring Elixir, a robust programming language known for its concurrency and fault-tolerance capabilities. We’ll look at some of Elixir’s syntax, and core features, as well as the Elixir community some resources for beginners and enthusiasts alike. 

The birth of Elixir

As the brainchild of José Valim, Elixir is rooted in Valim’s experiences with Ruby on Rails and Erlang. Elixir aimed to tackle the challenges of building scalable and fault-tolerant applications.

Harnessing the power of the Erlang Virtual Machine (VM), Elixir inherits its renowned traits of low latency, distributed computing, and fault tolerance. This foundation empowers developers to create robust systems capable of handling demanding workloads across diverse industries.

Erlang VM and Virtual Machine Process

Elixir’s versatility extends far beyond its roots. With its powerful tooling and ecosystem, Elixir facilitates productivity in various domains, including web development, embedded software, machine learning, data pipelines, and multimedia processing. Its flexibility and efficiency make it an ideal choice for tackling an array of challenges in today’s tech landscape.

Elixir and Erlang: A powerful duo

Elixir, a robust programming language, collaborates closely with Erlang, renowned for building fault-tolerant and distributed systems. Developed by Ericsson in the late 1980s, Erlang initially targeted telecommunications applications, prioritising reliability and uninterrupted service.

A key element driving the synergy between Elixir and Erlang is the BEAM, a virtual environment proficient in executing code written in both languages. Elixir, uniquely, is constructed directly atop the BEAM, inheriting its capacity for highly concurrent and fault-tolerant runtime operations. This integration fosters seamless interoperability between Elixir and Erlang applications, ensuring optimal performance and reliability

Elixir on BEAM

Elixir benefits significantly from Erlang’s robust framework, leveraging its scalability, fault tolerance, and distributed processing capabilities. This makes Elixir a preferred choice in industries where system uptime is paramount. Additionally, Elixir developers gain access to Erlang’s established ecosystem and libraries, simplifying the development of resilient and scalable systems.

It also introduces contemporary syntax and language features, enhancing developer productivity and code expressiveness. This modernisation, combined with Erlang’s robust runtime, empowers developers to navigate the complexities of today’s software landscape confidently, delivering efficient and reliable solutions.

Furthermore, Elixir introduces contemporary syntax and language features, enhancing developer productivity and code expressiveness. This modernisation, combined with Erlang’s robust runtime, empowers developers to navigate today’s complex software landscape with confidence, delivering efficient and reliable solutions.

Elixir and Erlang are a formidable duo, Complementing each other’s strengths to empower developers in crafting dependable, scalable, and fault-tolerant systems with ease and effectiveness.

Elixir’s syntax and language features

Elixir boasts a clean and expressive syntax inspired by Ruby, with a focus on developer productivity and readability. Its language features are designed to promote conciseness and clarity, making it an ideal choice for both beginners and experienced developers alike.

  • Concurrency with Erlang processes: Elixir utilises lightweight Erlang processes for concurrency. These processes communicate via message passing, facilitating highly concurrent and fault-tolerant systems.
  • Immutable data: Elixir promotes immutability, ensuring that once data is created, it cannot be changed. This simplifies code reasoning and mitigates unexpected side effects.
  • Pattern matching: A core feature, pattern matching allows developers to destructure data and match it against predefined patterns, leading to concise and elegant code.
  • Functions as first-class entities: Functions can be assigned to variables, passed as arguments, and returned from other functions, enabling powerful abstractions and composition.
  • Metaprogramming with macros: Elixir offers metaprogramming capabilities through macros, empowering developers to generate and manipulate code at compile time. This facilitates the creation of domain-specific languages and powerful abstractions.
  • Fault Tolerance via Supervision Trees: Elixir adopts Erlang’s “let it crash” philosophy, isolating processes and containing failures. Supervision trees structure and manage process supervision, ensuring robust fault tolerance.
  • OTP for scalability and reliability: Elixir includes OTP, providing libraries and best practices for building scalable, fault-tolerant, and distributed systems. OTP features such as gen_servers and supervisors enhance system reliability.
  • Comprehensive tooling and documentation: Elixir offers a rich set of tools for development, testing, and deployment. Mix, the build tool, manages dependencies and runs tests, while ExDoc simplifies documentation creation and maintenance.

Understanding functional programming in Elixir

In Elixir, functional programming prioritises pure functions, immutable data, and higher-order functions. It encourages writing code clearly and expressively, treating functions as primary elements that can be passed as arguments or returned as results.

Elixir’s functional programming paradigm supports the development of robust, scalable, and fault-tolerant systems, which makes it an excellent option for creating distributed and concurrent applications.


  • Elixir’s functional approach reduces bugs and promotes code clarity.
  • Problems are solved in smaller, testable units.


  • Elixir’s lightweight processes enable easy concurrency.
  • Systems can scale across multiple cores or nodes effortlessly.

Fault Tolerance:

  • Elixir’s supervision tree ensures system resilience.
  • Failures are isolated and managed, keeping the system running.


  • Elixir’s processes communicate asynchronously.
  • Concurrent operations are efficient and responsive.


  • Elixir applications can easily scale across multiple nodes.
  • Distributed computing is simplified, enabling high availability.

 Practical applications of Elixir

Elixir’s versatility and robust features make it a powerful language for developing a wide range of applications across different domains. From web development to distributed systems and embedded devices, Elixir’s concurrency, fault tolerance, and scalability enable developers to build resilient and efficient solutions. Here are some practical applications where Elixir shines:

Web development with Phoenix Framework

Phoenix, Elixir’s web framework, offers high-performance solutions for modern web apps. Leveraging Elixir’s concurrency and fault tolerance, Phoenix scales effortlessly to handle concurrent connections and real-time features.

Elixir Phoenix

Distributed systems and microservices

Elixir’s lightweight processes and distribution support make it ideal for distributed systems and microservices. Its fault-tolerant supervision trees ensure system reliability and scalability across multiple nodes.

Embedded systems and IoT

Elixir’s small footprint and low-latency performance suit embedded systems and IoT. With Nerves, developers can deploy Elixir to devices like Raspberry Pi, ensuring fault tolerance and resilience.

Real-time messaging and chat applications

Elixir’s concurrency and real-time support make it perfect for messaging apps. Libraries like Phoenix Channels enable scalable and fault-tolerant chat systems, handling numerous concurrent users seamlessly.

Financial and e-commerce systems

Elixir’s reliability and scalability are beneficial for financial and e-commerce platforms. Its fault-tolerant supervision ensures uninterrupted processing of transactions. Frameworks like Broadway facilitate scalable data processing for large transaction volumes.

What is Elixir used for: Real-world examples

Elixir, with its powerful features and versatile ecosystem, finds applications in a host of real-world scenarios across different industries:

Discord: Community-driven communication

Discord, serving over 150 million monthly active users, relies on Elixir for seamless voice and text chat experiences in gaming and educational communities.

Pinterest: Scalable backend services

Pinterest, with over 450 million monthly active users, employs Elixir for its backend services, handling millions of user interactions and content updates daily.

Deliveroo: Reliable food delivery services

Deliveroo, operating in over 800 cities globally, employs Elixir for its backend systems, ensuring reliable food delivery services for millions of customers worldwide.

Bleacher Report: Real-time sports updates

Bleacher Report delivers real-time sports updates and news to over 40 million monthly active users, leveraging Elixir for efficient data processing and content delivery.

PepsiCo: Supply chain optimisation

PepsiCo, one of the world’s largest food and beverage companies, uses Elixir to optimise its supply chain operations, ensuring efficient distribution of products across its global network.

Scalable web applications with Elixir

When you’re making mobile or web apps, scalability is key. If your app can’t handle more users, you might lose them. Plus, you could miss out on chances for growth. 

Scalability also matters financially. If your app can’t grow smoothly, you’ll end up spending more on infrastructure. That’s where Elixir comes in. It’s a powerful language for building apps that can handle lots of users. Elixir is used in different areas such as gaming and e-commerce. 

It’s like combining the best of OCaml and Haskel languages. With strong tools and a helpful community, Elixir is perfect for making apps that can grow with businesses.

Elixir’s ecosystem and community

Elixir’s success isn’t just attributed to its language features, but also to its vibrant ecosystem and supportive community. With a growing collection of libraries, tools, and resources, Elixir’s ecosystem continues to expand, making it easier for developers to build and maintain Elixir applications.

Tools and libraries enhancing Elixir development

Elixir boasts a rich ecosystem of libraries and tools that cover a wide range of functionalities, from web development and database integration to concurrency and distributed computing. The Phoenix web framework, for instance, provides a robust foundation for building scalable and real-time web applications, while Ecto offers a powerful database abstraction layer for interacting with databases in Elixir applications. Other notable libraries include Broadway for building concurrent and fault-tolerant data processing pipelines, and Nerves for developing embedded systems and IoT applications.

The growing community and learning resources

One of Elixir’s greatest strengths is its supportive and inclusive community. From online forums and chat rooms to local meetups and conferences, Elixir enthusiasts have numerous avenues to connect, learn, and collaborate with fellow developers. 
The Elixir Forum and the Elixir Slack community are popular online hubs where developers can seek help, share knowledge, and discuss best practices.

Additionally, ElixirConf, the annual conference dedicated to Elixir and Erlang, provides a platform for developers to network, attend talks and workshops, and stay up-to-date with the latest developments in the Elixir ecosystem.


Elixir’s unique blend of concurrency, fault tolerance, and scalability makes it a powerful language for modern application development. Its clean syntax and functional programming principles enhance developer productivity and code maintainability.

Looking ahead, Elixir’s future in software development is promising. With the growing demand for distributed systems and data-intensive applications, Elixir’s strengths position it well for continued growth and innovation.

Supported by an active community and ongoing contributions, Elixir is set to play a significant role in shaping the future of software development. Whether you’re a seasoned developer or new to Elixir, its potential is boundless in the dynamic landscape of software engineering.

Further reading and resources

Books on Elixir

  • Programming Elixir” by Dave Thomas: This book offers a comprehensive introduction to Elixir, covering its syntax, features, and best practices for building robust applications.
  • “Elixir in Action” by Saša Jurić: A practical guide to Elixir programming, covering topics such as concurrency, distributed computing, and building scalable applications.
  • “The Little Elixir & OTP Guidebook” by Benjamin Tan Wei Hao: This book provides a gentle introduction to Elixir’s concurrency model and the OTP framework, essential for building fault-tolerant and distributed systems.

Online Tutorials on Elixir

  • Elixir School: A free online resource offering interactive lessons and tutorials on Elixir programming, suitable for beginners and experienced developers alike.

The Complete Elixir and Phoenix Bootcamp

Master Functional Programming techniques with Elixir and Phoenix while learning to build compelling web applications!

Community forums and support for Elixir learners

  • Elixir Forum: A vibrant online community for Elixir enthusiasts to ask questions, share knowledge, and discuss topics related to Elixir programming and ecosystem.
  • Elixir Slack Community: (https://elixir-slackin.herokuapp.com/): Join the Elixir Slack community to connect with fellow developers, ask for help, and engage in discussions on all things Elixir.
  • Reddit r/elixir: The Elixir subreddit is a place to share news, articles, and questions about the Elixir programming language and ecosystem.

These resources provide a solid foundation for learning the Elixir programming language and engaging with the vibrant Elixir community. Whether you’re just starting your journey with Elixir or looking to deepen your knowledge, these books, tutorials, and forums offer valuable insights and support along the way.

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